Wednesday, February 18, 2009

Transformation Of sentences

Transformation Of sentences

Transformation is changing the form of a sentence without changing its meaning. In the exams transformation should be done according to the direction given in the question paper. In doing transformation a student should have a fairly well knowledge about the kinds of sentence and their formation. A brief direction about doing transformation is given below.
According to the meaning:

Affirmative to negative:
Rule 1: Only/ alone/ merely → Replaced by → None but(person)/ nothing but(things)/ not more than or not less than(number)
Ex: Aff: Only Allah can help us. Neg: None but Allah can help us.
Aff: He has only a ball. Neg: He has nothing but a ball.
Aff: He has only ten taka. Neg: He has not more than ten taka.

Rule 2: Must → Replaced by → Cannot but/ Cannot help+ (v+ing).
Ex: Aff: We must obey our parents. Neg: we cannot but obey our parents/ we cannot help obeying our parents.

Rule 3: Both----and → Replaced by → not only ---- but also.
Ex: Aff: Both Dolon and Dola were excited.
Neg: Not only dolon but also Dola were present.

Rule 4: and ( if join two words) → Replaced by → Not only ----- but also.
Ex: aff: He was obedient and gentle. Neg: He was not only obedient but also gentle.

Rule 5: Everyone/ everybody/every person/ (every + common noun)/all → Replaced by → There is no + attached word + but.
Ex: Aff: Every mother loves her child.
Neg: There is no mother but loves her child.

Rule 6: As soon as → Replaced by → No sooner had ----- Than.
Ex: Aff: As soon as the thief saw the police, he ran away. Neg: No sooner had the thief saw the police he ran away.

Rule 7: Absolute Superlative degree → Replaced by → No other+ attached word+so+ positive form+ as+subject.
Ex: aff: Dhaka is the biggest city in Bangladesh.
Neg: No other city is as big as Dhaka in Bangladesh.

Rule8: Sometimes affirmative sentences are changed into negative by using opposite words. Before the word, off course ‘not’ is used.
Ex: Aff: I shall remember you. Neg: I shall not forget you.

Rule 9: Always → Replaced by → Never.
Ex: aff: Raven always attends the class. Neg: Raven never misses the class.

Rule 10: Too ---- to → Replaced by → so ---that+ can not/could not(in past).
Ex: Aff: He is too weak to walk. Neg: He is so weak that he cannot walk.

Rule 11: As – as → Replaced by → Not less – than.
Ex: Aff: Simi was as wise as Rimi. Neg: Simi was not less wise than Rimi.

Rule 12: Universal truth are change by making them negative interrogative.
Ex: Aff: The Sun sets in the west. Neg: Doesn’t the Sun set in the west.

Rule 13: Sometimes → Replaced by → Not + always.
Ex: Aff: Raven sometimes visits me. Neg: Raven doesn’t always visit me.

Rule 14: Many → Replaced by → Not a few.
Ex: Aff: I have many friends. Neg: I donot have few friends.

Rule 15: A few → Replaced by → not many.
Ex: Aff: Bangladesh has a few scholars. Neg: Bangladesh doesn’t have many scholars.

Rule 16: Much → Replaced by → A little.
Ex: Aff: He belongs much money. Neg: He doesn’t belong a little money.

Rule 17: A little → Replaced by → not much.
Ex: Aff: Dolon has a little riches. Neg: Dolon doesn’t have much riches.



ASSERTIVE TO INTERROGATIVE

Rule 1: If the sentence is in the affirmative you have to change it into negative interrogative. If it is in negative then you have to change it into bare interrogative.
Ex: Ass: He was very gentle.
Int: was n’t he very gentle?
Aff: He is not a good person.
Int: Is he a good person?

Rule 2: No auxiliary verb in sentence →→ Change it by using →→ Do/does/did Or Don’t/doesn’t/didn’t.
Ex: Ass:He plays Football.
Int: Does he play football?
Ass: They did not play football yesterday.
Int: Did they play football yesterday?

Rule3: Never → Replaced by → Ever.
Ass: I never drink tea.
Int: Do I ever drink tea?

Rule 4: Every body/everyone/ All → Replaced by → Who + Don’t/ Doesn’t/ Didn’t
Ex: Everybody wishes to be happy.
Int : Who doesn’t wish to be happy?

Rule 5: Every + noun → Replaced by → Is there any + noun+ Who don’t/doesn’t/didn’t.
Ex: Ass: Every man wishes to be happy.
Int: Is there any man who doesn’t wish to be happy?

Rule 6: No body/ no one / None → Replaced by → Who.
Ex: Nobody could count my love for you.
Int: Who could ever count my love for you?

Rule 7 : There is no → Replaced by → Is there any/ Who(person)/ What( thing).
Ex: Ass: There is no use of this law.
Int: What is the use of this law.
Ass: There is no man happier than Jamil.
Int: Who is Happier than jamil.

Rule 8: It Is no → Replaced by → Is there any/Why.
Ex: Ass: It is no use of taking unfair means in the exam.
Int: Why take unfair means in the exam? Or,
Is there any use of this law?

Rule 9: It Doesn’t matter → Replaced by → what though/ Does it matter.
Ex: Ass: It does not matter if you fail in te exam.
Int: What though if you fail in the exam?

Interrogative to assertive is to be done doing Vice versa.
Exclamatory sentence to Assertive sentence

Rule1: Subject and Verb of exclamatory sentence are to be used as the subject and verb of assertive sentence at the outset of the sentence.
How/what → Replace by → Very(before adjective)/ Great(before noun)
Ex: How fortunate you are!
Ass: You are very fortunate.
Exc: What a fool you are!
Ass: You are a great fool.

Rule 2: Sometimes the subject and verb may be eclipsed.
Ex: What a beautiful scenery!
Ass: It is a very beautiful scenery.
Ex: What a pity!
Ass: It is a great pity.

Rule 3: Hurrah/ Bravo → Replace by → I/we rejoice that/ It is a matter of joy that.
Ex: Hurrah! We have own the game.
Ass: It is a matter of joy that we have won the game.

Rule 4: Alas → Replace by → I/we Mourn that/ It is a matter of sorrow or grief that.
Ex: Alas! He has failed.
Ass: We mourn that he has failed.

Rule 5: Had/were/If /Would that(at the out set) → Replaced by → I wish + subject again + were/ had+ rest part.
Ex: Had I the wings of a bird!
Ass: I wish I had the wings of a bird.
Ex: Were I a bird!
Ass: I wish I were a bird.
Ex: If I were young again!
Ass: I wish I were young again.
Ex: would that I could be a child!
Ass: I wish I could be a child.


Assertive to exclamatory is to be done doing Vice versa.


Imperative to assertive

Rule 1: Add subject + should in doing assertive.
Ex: Do the work.
Ass: you should do the work.

Rule 2: Please/kindly → Replaced by → you are requested to.
Ex: Please, help me.
Ass: You are requested to help me.

Rule 3: Do not → Replaced by → You should not.
Ex: Do not run in the sun.
Ass: you should not run in the sun.

Rule 4: Never → Replaced by → you should never.
Ex: Never tell a lie.
Ass: You should never tell a lie.

Rule 5: Let us → Replaced by → We should.
Ex: Let us go out for a walk.
Ass: We should go out for a walk.

Rule 6: Let + noun/pronoun → Replaced by → Subject + might.
Ex: Let him play football.
Ass: He might play football.



Change of degree

Rule1: If the superlative degree says about the best thing then the rule is:-
For comparative,use –
subject +verb + adjective/adverb(comp. form) + Than any other + rest part
For positive, use-
No other + rest part after supr. Degree + verb + so/as + positive form of adj/adv + as + sub.

Ex: Su: Suman is the tallest boy in the class.
Com: Suman is taller than any other boy in the class.
Pos: No other boy in the class is as tall as Suman.

Rule 2: If In superlative degree ‘One of the’ is transformed in this way:
Comparative: Sub+verb +comp. form +than most other+ Rest part.
Positive: Very few+ rest part after supr. Degree + verb + so/as + positive form of adj/adv + as + sub.

Ex: Nazrul was one of the greatest poets in Bangladesh.
Comp.: Nazrul was greater than most other poets in Bangladesh.
Positive: Very few poets in Bangladesh were so great as Nazrul.

Note: Superlative: Of all/ of any
Comparative: Than all other/than any other.
Positive: It does not exist.

Ex: Sup: Mr. khan is the oldest of all men in the village.
Com: Mr. Khan is older than all other men in the village.
Pos: No other man is as old as Mr. Khan.

Rule 3: Simple comparative is transformed into positive by using
(not so + adj/adv+as)/ (so+adj/adv+as)if negative. Second noun or pronoun is used first.
Ex: 1. com: Rina is wiser than Mina.
Pos: Mina is not so wise as Rina.
2. Com: Mina is not wiser than Rina.’
Pos: Rina is as wise as Mina.


Rule 4: No/not less --- than is transformed into positive by using as +adj/adv+ as
Ex: com: Karim is not less meritorious than Suman.
Pos: Karim is so meritorious as Suman.


Complex →→→ Simple →→→ compound

Rule 1:Since/As/When Change is to be made in the subordinate clause .
When subjects are same.

Simple: 1) Omit since/as/when.
2) (Verb+ing) of the subordinate clause.
3) then write the rest part.
4) use subject with the principal clause.
5) Principal clause remains unchanged.

Ex: Since the boy worked hard, he made a good result.
Simple: Working hard, the boy made a good result.

Compound: 1) Omit since /as /when
2) write down the rest part.
3) join clauses by using and, and so, and therefore
4) write the main clause unchanged.

Ex: The boy worked hard and made a good result.

Rue2: In case of Be verb in subordinate clause:

1) Use being/ Because of + Pronoun/noun(possessive form)+ being.
Ex: Since he was weak, he could not work hard.
Simple: Because of his being weak, he could not work hard.
Compound: He was weak and therefore could not work hard.
Note: and therefore, is used for showing reasons.

Rule3: When the subject of clauses are different:
Simple:
1)Subject of s.c.
2) Verb+ing ( be verb → being; Have verb → having)
Ex: Since the weather was foul, we did not go out.
Sim: The weather being foul, we did not go out.

Compound: use ‘and therefore’to join two clauses.
Ex: The weather was foul and therefore we did not go out.

Rule 4: If,’ is Replaced by – ‘by + (verb+ing)
Ex: If you work hard, you will succeed in life.
Simple: By working hard, you will succeed in life.

Compound: 1) Omit if+subject.
2. use ‘and’ to join two clauses.
Ex: Compound: Work hard and you will succeed in life.

Rule 5: Simple: If-not/unless, is replaced by, - without+( verb+ing)
Ex: Complex: If you donot work hard, you will fail in the examination.
Sim: Without working hard, you will fail in the examination.

Compound: Use or’/otherwise to join two clauses.
Ex: Work hard or you will fail in the examination.

Rule 6: Simple: Though’ is replaced by In spite of+ Possessive form of the subject+ (verb+ing)
Ex: Com: Though he tried heart and soul, he could not succeed in life.
Sim: In spite of his trying heart and soul he could not succeed in life.

Compound: Use ‘but’ to join two clauses.
Rule 7: Simple: So that is replaced by to/in order to.
Ex: Comp: He works hard so that he may prosper in life.
Sim: he works hard to/in order to prosper in life.

Compound: “and want/wants to” is used to join two clauses.
Ex: He works hard and wants to prosper in life.

Rule 8: Simple: ‘so + adjective + that’ is replaced by ‘Too + adjective + to’
Ex: The boy is so foolish that he cannot understand it.
Sim: The boy is too foolish to understand it.

Compound: Use ‘And Therefore’ to make it a compound sentence.
Ex: He is so foolish and therefore cannot understand it.

Rule 9: When(if mentions time) is replaced by
For short time – At
For month or Season – In
For age--- at the age of.
Ex: She woke up when it was midnight.
Simple: She woke up at midnight.
Com: When it is spring, the cuckoo sings.
Sim: In Spring the cuckoo sings.
Con: When Samira was four she went to school.
Sim: At the age of four, Samira went to school.

Compound: Use and to join clauses.
Ex: She woke up and it was midnight.

Rule 10: Simple: If the clause says a bout a continuous fact then use-
At the time of instead of ‘When’
Ex: When I was eating the phone rang.
Sim: At the time of my eating, the phone rang.
Compound: Use ‘And’.
Ex: I was eating and the phone rang.

Rule 11: Simple: Noun clause can be replaced by noun.
Ex: Com: He admitted that he was guilty.
Sim: He admitted his guilt.
Com: That he is honest is known to all.
Sim: his honesty is known to all.

Compound: Use ‘And’.
Ex: He is honest and it is known to all.

Rule 12: Simple: If Complex sentence is made with relative pronoun(who, what, which, that), omit it and make (verb+ing).
Com: The Doctor who is working in the hospital is known to all.
Sim: The doctor working in the hospital is known to all.
Note: If the verb is in the past participle it remains unchanged.
Ex: The picture which was drawn by Liza is very fine.
Sim: The picture drawn by Liza is very fine.

Rule 13: Simple: Adjective Clause is changed into - Adjective, Past participle Phrase, Noun in apposition, infinitive.

Adjective:
ex: A man who is drowning catches at a straw.
Sim: A drowning man catches at a straw.
Compound: A man is drowning and so catches at a straw.
Past participle phrase:
Ex: The answer that he wrote was not correct.
Sim: The answer written by him was not correct.
Compound: He wrote the answer and it was not correct.
Gerundial Infinitive:
Ex: I have no money that I can lend you.
Sim: I have no money to lend you.
Compound: I have no money and I cannot lend you.

Rule 14: In the compound “ not only---- But also” is Changed by “Besides + (Verb +ing)”
In the simple.
Ex: Mr.Khan not only teaches us English but also writes novels.
Sim: Besides teaching us English, Mr. Khan Writes novels.


40 comments:

  1. Play while you play,read while you read.(transform into a single sentence)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Play while you play, or read while you read.

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    2. Mr.x is one of the least hard working teacher in the school.(turn into positive degree) plz send fast.It is very argent.

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    3. This comment has been removed by the author.

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    4. This comment has been removed by the author.

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    5. Very few teacher in the school are as less hard working as Mr. X.
      -m.m.yeasin67@gmail.com

      Delete
  2. Really, This site is very essential for a students.

    ReplyDelete
  3. he considered our case to some extent. what is the negative of this sentence

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  4. this is really a gr8 helpful site
    IT HELPED IN MY EXAM A LO

    THNXXXX
    LOL

    ReplyDelete
  5. Thanxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    for ur help

    ReplyDelete
  6. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  7. he considered our case to some extent.
    he could not but consider our case to some extent. or
    he did not consider our case completely.
    @Ravi sharma

    Play while you play,read while you read.
    4 finite verbs can not be reduced to one.
    so this sentence can not be transformed into a single sentence without distorting the meaning!
    @Mona

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  8. the example is wrong-
    As soon as i saw the man,he ran away.
    Ans-No sooner had i "seen" the man than he ran away

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Ans-"No sooner did I see the man than he ran away."
      This the Correct Answer!!!!
      Ans@Pushpendu

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    2. had i seen... did i see.. both are correct..!

      Delete
  9. Awesome sight but needs to be develop a bit....

    ReplyDelete
  10. So helpful.
    Thanks
    Click & SIGN UP for similer facebook:
    http://www.intichat.com/invite/user_12086/
    http://www.minuteworkers.com/register.php?ref=wayes

    ReplyDelete
  11. Hello, I've got a doubt... this is from an activity a student had to solve for his school:
    "do you know when the operation took place?" the patient asked.
    He is supposed to use DID to complete this second sentence:
    _____________________________ place?"asked the patient.

    How do you do it??
    Thanks in advance

    ReplyDelete
  12. hello
    excellently written..
    but i have a doubt from conversion of imperative to assertive sentences..
    how to convert the following sentence into assertive?

    "let me do my work"

    ReplyDelete
  13. bt i amn't impressed bcoz of not see the rules of simple2 complex 2 compound .plz add these rules & help us 2 use net in learning .............

    ReplyDelete
  14. how do i change this sentence to negative??
    "every dark cloud has a silver lining"

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. there is no cloud but have silver lining

      Delete
  15. Isnt there any information on tha label about the ingredients?
    Does.......?

    ReplyDelete
  16. this site heiped me in my exam
    thnxxx

    ReplyDelete
  17. hello,

    could you pl help in the following query.
    sen A: If you had reported as many murder cases as i have, you would have known beforehand what line he would have taken.
    sen B: you did not _________
    in the above we have to rewrite sent A using the hint in sent B.
    thnX

    ReplyDelete
  18. This site contains very good information but its incomplete. All the transformation of sentences are not given such as degree of comparison, active and passive voice, simple, compound and complex sentences. If this site contained these topics, it would be a perfect one...

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  19. Mr.X is one of the least hard working teacher in the school.(turn into positive degree)

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  20. transformation of : creation, not a construction

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  21. He kept his promise(compound)Please reply anyone

    ReplyDelete
  22. "I fully agree with you." (USE "agreement" in place of agree) . Please reply fast :)

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  23. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  24. plz give me the answer to this
    'sunil thought that the meeting would be held next week'(begin:sunil was under....)
    plz reply
    faaazzzzzt....

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Sunil was under the impression that the meeting would be held next week.

      Delete